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Little effect of climate change on body size of herbivorous beetles



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Climate Change of 4C GlobalWarming above Pre-industrial Levels

【摘要】<p>Using a set of numerical experiments from 39 CMIP5 climate models, we project the emergence time for 4C globalwarming with respect to pre-industrial levels and associated climate changes under the RCP8.5 greenhouse gas concentrationscenario. Results show that, according to the 39 models, the median year in which 4C global warming will occur is 2084.</p><p>Based on the median results of models that project a 4C global warming by 2100, land areas will generally exhibit strongerwarming than the oceans annually and seasonally, and the strongest enhancement occurs in the Arctic, with the exception ofthe summer season. Change signals for temperature go outside its natural internal variabilities globally, and the signal-tonoiseratio averages 9.6 for the annual mean and ranges from 6.3 to 7.2 for the seasonal mean over the globe, with the greatestvalues appearing at low latitudes because of low noise.</p>

《大气科学进展》 | 2018年7期 | Xiaoxin WANG

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  Complex network analysis of climate change in theTarim River Basin, Northwest China

【摘要】  The complex network theory provides an approach for understanding the complexity of climate change from a new perspective.<br/>  In this study, we used the coarse graining process to convert the data series of daily mean temperature and dailyprecipitation from 1961 to 2011 into symbol sequences consisting of five characteristic symbols (i.e., R, r, e, d and D), andcreated the temperature fluctuation network (TFN) and precipitation fluctuation network (PFN) to discover the complexnetwork characteristics of climate change in the Tarim River Basin of Northwest China. The results show that TFN andPEN both present characteristics of scale-free network and small-world network with short average path length and highclustering coefficient. The nodes with high degree in TFN are RRR, dRR and ReR while the nodes with high degree in PFNare rre, rrr, eee and err, which indicates that climate change modes represented by these nodes have large probability ofoccurrence. Symbol R and r are mostly included in the important nodes of TFN and PFN, which indicate that the fluctuatingvariation in temperature and precipitation in the Tarim River Basin mainly are rising over the past 50 years. The nodesRRR, DDD, ReR, RRd, DDd and Ree are the hub nodes in TFN, which undertake 19.71% betweenness centrality of the network.<br/>  The nodes rre, rrr, eee and err are the hub nodes in PFN, which undertake 13.64% betweenness centrality of the network.<br/><br/>

《寒旱区科学(英文版)》 | 2017年3期 | ZuHan Liu

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Effect of cryostructures on the uniaxial compressive strength of frozen clay

【摘要】<p>Unconfined uniaxial compressive tests were performed to study the influence of cryostructure on frozen clay&#39;s behavior,</p><p>such as strain? stress, compressive strength, and failure characteristics, at temperatures varying from ? 10 to ?2 °C and</p><p>strain rates varying from 1.0×10?5 to 1.0×10?3 s?1. Artificial samples were prepared of three types: (1) integral structure, (2)</p><p>laminar structure, and (3) reticular structure. The impact of temperature, strain rate, and cryostructure on the mechanical</p><p>properties is discussed. In general, frozen clay with various cryostructures shows strain-softening behavior in the range of</p><p>testing temperatures and strain rates. For frozen clay of different cryostructures, the ultimate compressive strength increases</p><p>with increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature.</p><p><br/></p>

《寒旱区科学(英文版)》 | 2017年3期 | JianWeiWang

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Pathways of Influence of the Northern Hemisphere Mid–highLatitudes on East Asian Climate: A Review

【摘要】This paper reviews recent progress made by Chinese scientists on the pathways of influence of the Northern Hemispheremid–high latitudes on East Asian climate within the framework of a “coupled oceanic–atmospheric (land–atmospheric or seaice–atmospheric) bridge” and “chain coupled bridge”。 Four major categories of pathways are concentrated upon, as follows: Pathway A—from North Atlantic to East Asia; Pathway B—from the North Pacific to East Asia; Pathway C—from theArctic to East Asia; and Pathway D—the synergistic eects of the mid–high latitudes and tropics. In addition, definitions ofthe terms “combined e ect”, “synergistic e ect” and “antagonistic e ect” of two or more factors of influence or processesand their criteria are introduced, so as to objectively investigate those eects in future research

《大气科学进展》 | 2019年9期 | Jianping LI

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Impact of Global Oceanic Warming on Winter Eurasian Climate

【摘要】<p>In the 20th century, Eurasian warming was observed and was closely related to global oceanic warming (the first leadingrotated empirical orthogonal function of annual mean sea surface temperature over the period 1901–2004). Here, large-scalepatterns of covariability between global oceanic warming and circulation anomalies are investigated based on NCEP–NCARreanalysis data. In winter, certain dominant features are found, such as a positive pattern of the North Atlantic Oscillation(NAO), low-pressure anomalies over northern Eurasia, and a weakened East Asian trough. Numerical experiments with theCAM3.5, CCM3 and GFDL models are used to explore the contribution of global oceanic warming to the winter Eurasianclimate. Results show that a positive NAO anomaly, low-pressure anomalies in northern Eurasia, and a weaker-than-normalEast Asian trough are induced by global oceanic warming. Consequently, there are warmer winters in Europe and the northernpart of East Asia. However,</p>

《大气科学进展》 | 2018年10期 | Xin HAO

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Moisture transfer and phase change in unsaturated soils: an experimental study of two types of canopy effect

【摘要】<p>Canopy effect refers to the phenomenon in which moisture accumulates underneath an impervious cover. A canopy effect</p><p>can lead to full saturation of the soil underneath the impervious cover. A recent theoretical study separates the canopy effect</p><p>into two types. The first one is caused by evaporation-condensation in unsaturated soils, while the second one is induced</p><p>by freezing-enhanced vapour transfer in unsaturated soils. To validate experimentally these two types of canopy effect</p><p>and to reveal their mechanisms, moisture-migration experiments were carried out, using a newly developed laboratory</p><p>apparatus for unsaturated frozen soils. Six conditions were applied to the calcareous sand, with different initial water contents</p><p>and boundary temperatures. The results show that water content in the upper portion of the sample increased under an</p><p>upward temperature gradient, and the increment of water content was greater if the soil was subjected to freezing.</p><p><br/></p>

《寒旱区科学(英文版)》 | 2017年3期 | ZuoYue He

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Research Progress on Application Effect of Biomass Charcoal and Its Restoration of Soil Phenolic Acid Pollution

【摘要】Biomass charcoal has positive effects on reducing soil nutrient loss, increasing fertilizer utilization, reducing organic pollution and pesticide residues, inhibiting pollutant enrichment, and reducing bioavailahility of pollutants. In this paper, the concept and effect of biomass charcoal were reviewed; the research situation of phenolic pollutants in soil was described; and the research progress on restoration of soil phenolic acid pollution by biomass charcoal application was summarized.

《Plant Diseases and Pests》 | 2019年1期 | Xia Junlong

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Effect of Mother Tongue Transfer on English Learning and Concerning Strategies

【摘要】<p>In language learning,language transfer refers to the influence of<br/>mother tongue on the second language acquisition. Language transfer can be<br/>classified into positive transfer and negative transfer. Positive transfer refers to<br/>the facilitating effects of the language already obtained by individual,<br/>especially mother tongue,on the second language acquisition. Conversely,<br/>negative transfer refers to the detrimental effects of mother tongue on the<br/>second language acquisition. The exemplification of negative transfer is<br/>presented to show the factors(i.e. the differences between Chinese and<br/>English languages and the influence of the logic tendency to mother<br/>language)that produce negative transfer.</p>

《东方教育》 | 2015年8期 | 胡 琪

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